The Gamification Of Learning And Instruction.zip
Learning professionals are finding success applying game-based sensibilities to the development of instruction. This is the first book to show how to design online instruction that leverages the best elements of online games to increase learning, retention, and application. It explains how to match different game strategies to types of learning content for the right learning outcome and discusses how gamification techniques can be used in a variety of settings to improve learning, retention and application of knowledge. Supported by peer-reviewed studies and examples from corporations who have adopted game-based learning successfully, the book illustrates how combining instructional design thinking with game concepts can create engaged and interactive learning experiences across a variety of media, from online to face-to-face.
The Gamification Of Learning And Instruction.zip
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If you would rather have a root canal than oversee an ERP implementation, you are not alone. But like avoiding a root canal, avoiding ERP implementation only causes more pain. This book eases the implementation pain. It shows you how a formal plan for learning will increase the productivity of the ERP implementation team, shorten overall implementation time, and substantially decrease implementation costs. It also provides a discussion on how an ERP implementation can be used as a catalyst for lifelong organizational learning.
As a professional my mission is to serve as a knowledge broker helping others understand the convergence of learning, technology and business. My goal is to empower others to make intelligent and informed choices regarding business, technology and learning strategies.
Following Karl Kapp's earlier book The Gamification of Learning and Instruction, this Fieldbook provides a step-by-step approach to implementing the concepts from the Gamification book with examples, tips, tricks, and worksheets to help a learning professional or faculty member put the ideas into practice. The Online Workbook, designed largely for students using the original book as a textbook, includes quizzes, worksheets and fill-in-the-blank areas that will help a student to better understand the ideas, concepts and elements of incorporating gamification into learning.
Ever since its advent gamification has sparked controversy between game designers, user experience designers, game theorists and researchers in human-computer interaction (Mahnič, 2014). This controversy is reflected also in some scientific studies of gamification, which show that its effect on motivation or participation is lower than the expectations created by the hype (Broer, 2014). Even so, substantial efforts have sought to take advantage of the alleged motivational benefits of gamification approaches.
Accordingly, in this article the focus is on analyzing the understanding of the motivational mechanisms provided by gamification in educational settings and its impact on learning. The guiding questions in this context were:
With the growing popularity of gamification and yet mixed opinions about its successful application in educational contexts, the current review is aiming to shed a more realistic light on the research in this field focusing on empirical evidence rather than on potentialities, beliefs and preferences.
Following the division empirical studies vs. theoretical papers, the first part of this review covers the published empirical research on the topic, while the second part surveys briefly publications targeting theoretical aspects of educational gamification.
A literature survey typically employs a framework for structuring the evaluation of the works in the targeted area. This framework captures the potential properties of interest and enables a comparison of the surveyed works and drawing meaningful conclusions. The use of gamification in learning involves a number of aspects, including game elements, educational context, learning outcomes, learner profile and the gamified environment. Gamification is receiving attention, particularly for its potential to motivate learners. Accordingly, our objective involving evaluation of the level of understanding of the motivational impacts of gamification in educational contexts has shaped our decision of what categories of information to be included in the framework for evaluating the surveyed works. More specifically, we looked for information that can facilitate the process of identifying and analyzing the empirical evidence demonstrating the motivational effects of gamification. Motivation as a psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction is contextual. Not only are individuals motivated in multiple ways, but also their motivation varies according to the situation or context of the task. To provide support for analyzing the contextual aspect, the information collected from the studies include the educational level, academic subject, and type of the gamified learning activity. We also included the used game elements, mechanics and dynamics since they are inherently related to the success of a gamification application. A number of motivation measures have been used in attempts to establish the effect of gamification on student motivation. In addition to appropriate measures, the verification of the validity of reported results requires availability of relevant statistical information about the studies. In order to provide support for our decision on how conclusive the reported results of a study are, we added the following categories: study sample, study duration, method of data collection, and outcome. Thus the final structure of information to be derived from the reviewed studies included the following categories: game elements, educational level, academic subject, learning activity, study sample, study duration, data collection, and outcome.
Considering the educational level, the bulk of gamification studies in the survey period were conducted at university level (44 papers), with less attention to K-12 education (7 papers). At university level, 1 study has reported results involving graduate students (Nevin et al., 2014), while at K-12 level, 3 studies have reported results involving elementary school students (Boticki, Baksa, Seow, & Looi, 2015; Simoes, Mateus, Redondo, & Vilas, 2015; Su & Cheng, 2015) , 2 studies have reported results involving middle school students (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015; Long & Aleven, 2014 ) and 2 studies have reported results involving high school students (Davis & Klein, 2015; Paiva, Barbosa, Batista, Pimentel, & Bittencourt, 2015). A possible explanation of this disproportion is that perhaps it is easier for college instructors to experiment with using gamification in their own courses. This might be because they are better supported technically or have necessary computer-related skills, which allow them to implement some gamification features, e.g. an electronic leaderboard. Studies involving different demographic groups however are beneficial, as we cannot necessarily generalize the results of a study conducted with one demographic group to another demographic group.
As shown in Table 2, the vast majority of gamification studies are dealing with Computer Science (CS) and Information Technology (IT). This fact provokes the question: Are CS and IT more suitable to gamification than the other subjects? The present studies however do not provide conclusive answer to this question. In the lack of other evidences, speculative answers can be given similar to the ones for the observed disproportion in gamifying college vs. school level activities, namely that perhaps it is easier for CS and IT instructors to experiment in their own courses. In sharp contrast, gamification experiments targeting activities related to disciplines from humanity and social sciences are extremely limited, with only one example (Holman et al., 2015) touching this subject. Another interesting observation is the low proportion of studies on gamifying STEM disciplines, excluding CS/IT and mathematics, where reinforcement of motivation is particularly beneficial: only two out of thirty two (Bonde et al., 2014) and (Su & Cheng, 2015).
Formal learning typically involves a mix of instructional activities and supporting materials, such as lectures, tutorials, assignments, projects, labs, exercises, class discussions and team work. A sizable part of the papers (16) studied gamification of courses as a whole, which implies gamifying a range of learning activities. Half of these are studies of gamified online courses (Amriani et al., 2014; Bernik et al., 2015; Jang et al., 2015; Krause et al., 2015; Leach et al., 2014; Sillaots, 2014; Utomo & Santoso, 2015), while the remaining part are regular courses typically with web-based learning support. Online learning normally requires stronger motivation, which makes it a somewhat more promising field for applying gamification. Although this presumes a higher concentration of studies on gamified online learning our findings indicate the opposite.